Insect Lifestage and
Management Date Estimates - Background
Key life cycle and management date
estimates are based on degree day correlations from various
sources. A primary source is the tabulation of insect phenology events
and associated degree day accumulations maintained by Dave Kain, NY State
Agricultural Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University.
Other sources are:
A.M. Agnello, entomology section editor, 2001, Pest
Management Guidelines for Commercial Tree-Fruit Production 2001, Cornell
University Cooperative Extension.
A.M. Agnello, Apple Boring Beetles, 1999, Cornell
University fact sheet at http://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/factsheets/treefruit/pests/ab/appleborer.html
J.F. Brunner, S.C. Hoyt, and M.A. Wright, 1987, Codling
moth control - A new tool for timing sprays, Extension Bulletin 1072,
Washington State University
F.H. Lathrop, 1955, Apple Insects in Maine.
D.G. Pfeiffer, entomology section editor, 1995,
Mid-Atlantic Orchard Monitoring Guide, Northeast Regional Agricultural
Engineering Service, NRAES-75.